If you can live with writing in markdown, the rmarkdown package provides a nice interface to rendering documents via pandoc. I have been able to render to beamer slides or a PDF (LaTeX) just by using this package. You are restricted to some types of documents --- I don't think you can use some of the HTML slide deck frameworks and render to PDF as the markup is different in terms of delineating slides boundaries, but beamer slides and documents use the same standard markdown headers to delineate sections/slides (beamer slides need you to set a configuration option to choose which level of header starts a slide; I use level 2 so that level 1 introduces a section slide).
There's probably a limit to how far you can go with this however, without totally compromising either of the rendered documents.
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